SafePro Para (07.03.2017)




Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 1

SafePro Para 2017

CIVL SafePro Para

RECOMMENDED SAFETY PROFICIENCY STANDARDS

FOR PARAGLIDING

2017 Edition

Revised 7/3/2017

Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 2

SafePro Para 2017

FEDERATION AERONAUTIQUE INTERNATIONALE

MSI - Avenue de Rhodanie 54 CH-1007 Lausanne Switzerland

Copyright 2017

All rights reserved. Copyright in this document is owned by the Fédération Aéronautique

Internationale (FAI). Any person acting on behalf of the FAI or one of its Members is hereby

authorised to copy, print, and distribute this document, subject to the following conditions:

The document may be used for information only and may not be exploited for commercial

purposes.

Any copy of this document or portion thereof must include this copyright notice.

Regulations applicable to air law, air traffic and control in the respective countries are

reserved in any event. They must be observed and, where applicable, take precedence

over any sport regulations

Note that any product, process or technology described in the document may be the subject of

other Intellectual Property rights reserved by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale or other

entities and is not licensed hereunder.

Authors

Stein Arne Fossum wrote the original ParaPro.

This edition renamed SafePro Para received modifications from Raymond Caux, Dennis

Pagen, Nikolay Yotov, Maxime Bellemin, Manu Bonte, Stéphane Malbos, Fabien Blanco.

It was revised by members of the CIVL, USHPA, FFVL, APPI and BHPA.

Notes

SafePro stands for safe progression according to a program based on professional

training principles.

Paragliding is a sport in which both men and women participate. Throughout this

document the words 'he', 'him' or 'his' are intended to apply equally to either sex unless it

is specifically stated otherwise.

Errors/Corrections

You can send corrections to CIVL by email at: civl-president@fai.org. Such corrections,

when appropriate, will be included in revised edition and made visible with a vertical bar

on the left.

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SAFEPRO PARA

AND THE IPPI CARD SCHEME

The CIVL International Pilot Proficiency Information (IPPI) Card was introduced in 1992.

Since then, associations and pilots throughout the world have benefited from its

internationally recognized standards. The IPPI Card is based on safety and training

standards defined in the SafePro Delta and SafePro Para programs.

The IPPI Card provides a standard reference by which all national rating programs may be

compared. The SafePro Delta (for hang gliding) and SafePro Para (for paragliding) stage on the

IPPI Card reflects the pilot proficiency. For the pilot who flies outside of his known or local area, it

is a quick and easy method of providing proof of flying experience and proficiency.

When a pilot travels abroad, the IPPI Card together with the national rating card will identify

the pilot skills. It gives flying site managers, instructors and others responsible for hang gliding

and/or paragliding flight operations an easy way of verifying the pilot experience level prior to

approval of flight activities.

The IPPI Card is valid only together with a current national licence or rating card.

Since October 2015, the IPPI Card is available in two ways:

1 Per IPPI level.

The IPPI Card is physically bought and sold by the approved association to pilots who ask for it.

It is not necessary to renew the IPPI Card except when a change in the pilot national licence

invalidates the IPPI Card. For example, if the pilot receive a higher national ranking which

corresponds to a higher stage in the SafePro Delta or SafePro Para system, a new IPPI Card

should be issued.

2 Per year.

The IPPI Card is a logo on the pilot national licence. The approved association has agreed to

issue the IPPI Card to all its licensed pilots for a small yearly fee. Licences are renewed every

year, so your IPPI level can be adjusted accordingly. Since 2015 a number of countries have

been using this method.

Please note that:

The IPPI Card does not provide any insurance coverage.

Flight safety is ultimately the pilot's own responsibility.

CIVL encourages all pilots to use the IPPI Card.

CIVL also encourage all NAC, federation or associated associations to promote and issue

the IPPI Card. A guide to administering this program can be found here:

http://www.fai.org/component/phocadownload/category/?download=10786:ippi-card-informationpack

Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 4

SafePro Para 2017

SAFEPRO PARA

A PARAGLIDING SAFETY AND TRAINING PROGRAM

Paragliding developed rapidly in the early years with new barriers broken nearly every day. It has

developed into a mature activity comparable to any form of aviation in its complexity, requirement

for training and attention to safety. While many pilots seek to progress to more efficient gliders

and more challenges (cross-country, aerobatics), we must not forget that humans need time to

learn new tasks in a safe manner. Most often, guided training takes place in the early stages

while more advanced skills are learned more haphazardly.

To be very clear, there is no reason today to learn alone. All the previous experience would be

useless in this case, and the chance of accident very high. In the early days, some accidents

were unavoidable because of the pioneering nature of the sport (Lilienthal was the first one),

while others could have been avoided simply by proper training.

Analysing pilot error accidents, many studies show they are mainly caused by a wrong mental

attitude. Better knowledge or skills do not necessarily lower the risk of accident (risk

homoeostasis), but lowering ones level of acceptable risk does. Of course knowledge is

fundamental to anticipate and measure the dangers, better skills may save the pilot from a

delicate situation. But above all, it is important for the pilot to adopt the right attitude by lowering

his level of acceptable risk. That is why he should learn to know himself, his mental strength and

weakness, and to control his stress and emotions.

Accidents also happen when the pilot takes the step up to a higher stage. A training system

should be designed to smooth out these steps with a natural progression to higher pilot ability. A

classic learning curve is predictable, meaning that basic steps lead to big progression in the

beginning, while later on, a lot of practice leads to small gains. It is highly recommended that the

initial progression be under the supervision of an instructor who will educate the student to get a

correct attitude for future development of his autonomy.

The SafePro program should be seen as a guide (hence the title: A program) for federations

wanting to develop their own program. The countries with a long practice already have their

culture and methods which may differ from the SafePro. The point here is that all organizations

(national federations, associations and CIVL) agree on a general level for each stage, so that

equivalences can be found between the different systems.

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SAFEPRO PARA

A GENERAL DESCRIPTION

OBJECTIVE

This program assists the participants to progress safely and become true airmen. They must be

able to enjoy the beauty and freedom of the sport without risking injury or restriction. The students

need time to develop until they can operate alone within the objective above. This is developed

most efficiently, enjoyably and safely through a motivating program. The students operational

freedom is expanded gradually, without jeopardizing safety, by breaking down the learning into

easily identifiable blocks.

PROGRAM

The learning progression consists of 5 natural stages, from the easy to the more difficult, from low

to high, from basic to advanced, being careful not to leave any gap on the way. It also divides the

participants into students and pilots, indicating whether they are autonomous or not.

1. Ground Skimming (not flying higher than you would care to fall)

2. Altitude Gliding (altitude and space to do manoeuvres, no soaring)

3. Active Flying (preparing for turbulence, recovery and descending techniques)

4. Soaring (using both ridge and thermal lift)

5. Senior pilot (mastering one or more advanced practices)

Each stage is followed by a more complex one requiring new knowledge and skills. It is a natural

ladder, where a student should climb to progress safely in his paragliding career. There are

other steps, such as changing to another harness, or learning to fly a new site or a new glider that

may be added to a country's training program.

Additional ratings are Accuracy, Distance, Racing and Aerobatics.

PARTICIPANTS

Student

The trainee is a student during the first 4 stages. He is considered to have limited ability to take

care of his own and other peoples safety. He is not yet able to evaluate all safety elements, make

sound decisions and act accordingly without supervision. A student should (allowing local

adaptation) always fly under supervision of an instructor, and before all ratings are reached,

under direct supervision of an instructor. He shall use only paragliders and harnesses suitable for

him and on which he has been checked out by an instructor. Repairs shall be made only when

approved by an instructor.

Pilot

Once the fourth stage is completed, the trainee becomes a pilot, understood as having a

significant amount of autonomy. He can take care of his own and other peoples safety within

applicable rules, regulations and code of good practice. He can evaluate all safety elements,

make safe and sound decisions and act accordingly on his own, or obtain further instruction,

information and assistance at his own discretion.

A pilot is expected to be familiar with and to follow all applicable national aeronautical regulations

and local flying site rules. He shall not participate in a demonstration, competition or other

organized flying requiring higher standards than he is rated for.

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Minimum age

The minimum recommended age is 12 years old, with a written permission of a parent or

guardian and a medical certificate if the student is below 18 years.

The medical agreement should have as minimum requirements: height of 1,50 m, weight of 45

kg, no spinal problem.

PILOTS ABILITY

It can be broken down to 4 elements:

Skills

Knowledge

Experience

Attitude

Skills are the techniques of control in all the flying situations and can best measure a pilots

ability, since paragliding is a practical activity. These techniques are mainly acquired through

practice and repetition with corrections being added by the instructor. Knowledge and experience

are tools of good value used in the learning process to improve the pilots ability. Attitude allows

the decision-making required to remain within safe limits is developed through constant feedback

from the instructor and applying the knowledge and experience to the current mental state and

the real and varied flying situations.

In the end, these 4 combined qualities result in good airmanship, the total awareness and ability

to fly an aircraft safely through all the demands of terrain, conditions, air traffic and changing

environment that a pilot encounters in flight. Good airmanship results in repeatable safe and

enjoyable flights, while poor airmanship leads to accidents. It is the instructors duty to leave a

student with good airmanship for the level of the particular course, but more importantly to leave

the student with an understanding and attitude that continues to foster good airmanship as the

pilot continues to develop.

During his progression, the pilot shall have:

either a student book, when he lacks the necessary airmanship during the first 4 stages,

or a pilot licence, showing he is mature enough to take care of his own flying, seeking

further instruction when needed.

Students in stages 1 to 4 shall be given the necessary instruction in each practical skill, once the

basic theory, aim, normal procedure, mistakes, dangers and their corrections, and safety aspects

are known. Each skill shall be practiced until the instructor is convinced that it is mastered. The

skills may be signed off progressively as the criteria are met, hence a special flight test may not

be necessary. They shall also be given the lectures, briefings, discussions and tests to ensure the

knowledge required at the current stage is acquired. The requirements should not restrict from

giving more instruction, the pedagogy being left to the instructor. However one must not forget

that beginners especially have limited capacity to absorb a lot of advice, which should then be

limited to those necessary for the proposed task.

Pilots in stage 5 may at their own discretion, within acceptable safe methods, acquire the

necessary instruction for each skill. Before the skills are signed off, they shall be demonstrated to

an instructor, who shall be convinced they are mastered. Pilots may at their own discretion

acquire the required knowledge, either attending lectures, briefings or through oral discussions

and group or personal study.

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Before a student or pilot is signed off at an applicable stage, the instructor or observer must be

convinced that he meets the required standard of knowledge. Before a completed stage 3, the

student shall pass a theoretical test on air law, applicable regulations and code of good practice,

ensuring he has the necessary knowledge to operate alone, safely and correctly at sites and in

the air.

Experience shall ensure that the knowledge, skills and airmanship have been practiced a

minimum of times in various situations. Exercise, drill and practice are important to meet the

objective of all true learning, which is to achieve behavioural changes. The experience

requirements shall be documented by a logbook or reliable witnesses.

The instructor should help the student to measure his mental strength in any way possible and be

able to take it into account in his decision-making process. He should help him have a critical

view on his operating, find the self-analysis weak points and the in depth reasons of his mistakes.

He should teach the student how to measure the probability and consequences of an accident

and include this risk analysis in his decision process.

COLOUR CODES

The stages are colour coded from yellow to brown for easy identification. The student can wear

visible markings that identify him and his stage. Apart from being a good site control system, it

gives the students and pilots insight in what they are up to.

The following is suggested: helmet badges with colour trim, matching the colour of the stage. The

badges currently used in Norway are shown for each stage.

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STAGE 1 GROUND SKIMMING (YELLOW)

Ground skimming is gliding near the ground over smooth terrain, below a few metres (not

higher than you would care to fall).

INSTRUCTIONAL AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS

Objective

This stage introduces the student to paragliding and enables him to discover the first feelings of

flying within safe limits.

This stage is probably the most important in the whole progression, since here is founded the

basis for good (or bad) decisions and habits. The student shall, in safe proximity to the ground, fly

easy equipment in easy environment and conditions, to gain confidence in flying, the equipment,

and himself. Here he practices and learns the basic skills.

Methods

Teaching has been traditionally on training slopes. However, flying close to the ground asks for a

precise control with little time to react and makes paragliding one of the most demanding air

sports. To start with the easiest practice (controlling a straight flying line before teaching to take

off and land), alternate methods are available now, like winch towing with low tensions close to

the ground, or tandem first flights as an introduction. Only a couple of minutes of in-flight control,

or even just displaying a film from an on-board camera can dramatically ease the students first

steps.

Proper environment

It is smooth terrain, preferably snow, sand, grass or gravel, with a profile that allows for ground

skimming with the paraglider used. The take-off and landing areas and the space between should

be free of obstacles and other hazards with a good margin to any side. It should be possible to do

the whole flight close to a straight line.

Warning

It is warned against attempts to take off and fly in unstable conditions, cross, down, strong or

gusty wind. The student shall not practice stalls (except for the landings) or more than gentle

turns with only small diversions from the flight path. Trying to work any type of lift can be

especially dangerous. The reason is the closeness to ground gives little time or altitude for

corrections. The student shall also avoid flying alone.

When all rating requirements have been met

The student shall, when flying without direct supervision of the instructor, only fly in beginner

environment in stable conditions with light and smooth headwinds.

Before progressing to the next stage

It is of vital importance that the student knows the basic theory and master all skills, since

weaknesses here may lead to the most serious consequences when he gets higher and flies in

more difficult conditions. It is especially important that he demonstrates correct procedures,

routines and checks in his preparation before flight, to ensure nothing is forgotten, overseen,

wrongly assembled or adjusted. Equipment failures, malfunctions or omission errors are best

avoided by developing proper habits from the very beginning. He should begin to understand the

judgement required to choose safe flying conditions for his skills level.

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SKILL REQUIREMENTS

Transport, care: Of paraglider and equipment

Equipment routines: Assembly, unfolding sail on ground, moving it when needed, daily

check, adjustment, disassembly

Preflight check: Connections, conditions, visualizing run or flight, clear area

Raising sail and control (including aborting take-off): On flat ground and on slope

Take-off: Sight forward, acceleration and trajectory control, gradual loading of glider

Flight control: Correct airspeed and directional control, smooth corrections

Landing: Directly into wind, sight forward, ready to run, using glider as a brake

Proper PLF emergency landing

KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

Aircraft

Terminology: Material and parts

Safety equipment: Helmet, quality sunglasses, boots, gloves, clothing, harness

Aerodynamics

Nature of flying: Dependent on continuous forward airspeed

Airspeed, groundspeed: Why take off and land into the wind

Control inputs: Brakes/weight shift, banking, turning, airspeed control

Meteorology

Wind: Wind meters, natural indicators and signs

- Velocity: m/s, km/h, knots or mph

- Direction: Compass and quadrants (head or up, tail or down, crosswinds)

- Force: Increases with the square of the wind velocity, effects, dangers

Conditions: Recognition of safe and dangerous conditions

Safety

Preparation: Standard routines and checks, double-check of critical factors (consider

paraglider + harness as a complete aircraft)

Exercises: Description, intention, procedures, execution, errors and dangers

EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

At least 2 practice days

ATTITUDE REQUIREMENTS

The instructor shall be convinced that the student can take care of his own and others

safety while ground skimming, within the instructional and safety recommendations given.

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STAGE 2 ALTITUDE GLIDING (ORANGE)

Altitude gliding is gliding with enough height and distance from the terrain to be able to

manoeuvre relatively freely.

INSTRUCTIONAL AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS

Objective

This stage introduces the student to gliding with height and distance to the terrain, enables him to

enjoy flying within safe limits.

At this stage, the student gradually becomes accustomed to flying well clear of the ground, and

should begin to lose height anxiety. He finds that he is actually safer with altitude, time and space

to manoeuvre and correct for possible mistakes. He has been taught how and when to use an

emergency parachute when mandatory in the country.

Proper environment

The take-off, landing area and flight path between them are easy and with good margins to any

obstacle or other hazards. The take-off area shall be smooth and allowing for acceleration to

flying speed before getting airborne (no cliff launch). The landing area shall be large and easy to

reach by normal manoeuvring with a good margin of height. If the landing cannot be seen from

take-off, there shall be two instructors, one on take-off and one on landing with an established

two-way communication between them.

Planning is the key word. The student must now plan and prepare for each flight. He learns and

practices the basic manoeuvres, such as speed control, coordinated turns and combinations of

them, using the brakes and/or weight shift, correction for wind drift and precision approaches and

landings. The planning and decision-making (judgement) starts even before take-off and

continues all the time. He must be ahead of the events, observe, evaluate, decide and act

accordingly, like in all aviation.

Drift and margins: All manoeuvres shall be done close to the landing field and into the wind to

avoid drifting out of reach of the landing area. Advanced manoeuvres like 360 turns and slow

flying shall be performed with extra caution and enough height and distance to the terrain to allow

for corrections or recovery upon loss of control. Turns, downwind flying and slow speeds close to

the ground shall be strictly avoided. Approach shall be planned in good time and with a good

height. The student shall also avoid flying alone.

Warning

It is warned against attempts to take off in cross, down, gusty or strong winds and to fly in

unstable or turbulent conditions or in lift. Poor planning, preparation and take-off techniques may

result in equipment failures or malfunctions, or failure to close leg loops, which may have the

most serious consequences.

When all rating requirements have been met

The student shall, when flying without the direct supervision of an instructor, only fly in beginner

or intermediate environment with light to moderate smooth winds. Take-off shall only be done in

approximately headwind. Lift or turbulence shall be avoided, or if not possible, flown straight

through to calmer conditions in order to land in the ordinary landing area.

Before progressing to the next stage

It is of vital importance that the student knows the applicable theory, masters airspeed control in

the lower speed range and is able to recognize and correct for stalls. He can identify his stress

level and manage it.

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SKILL REQUIREMENTS

Planning: Insight, evaluations and decisions, flight plan, axes, drift, height, land marks

Pre-flight check

Mental state and stress level awareness, techniques to lower stress

Take-off: Canopy raising and control, stop-line/decision, acceleration, liftoff, clearing

terrain, transition to sitting position

Shallow turns: Visual check, gentle to medium bank, drift correction

Approach: Setting relative to terrain and wind, types of approach, hands up, straight final,

overcoming gradient with speed

Landing: Aiming towards a preset area, hands up and braking

After landing: Checking traffic, leaving landing for next pilots

Ground handling: Glider control while staying on the ground

KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

Pilot

Physical factors: fitness and exhaustion, hydration, food, skin and eye protection, alcohol

and drugs

Psychological factors: Identify and lower stress, identify and express emotions

Pilot in command: Responsibilities, abilities, necessity to complete any started flight

Aircraft

Glider handling: Axes, speed control, slow flight

Harness tuning: Fixing harness position and comfort

Safety equipment: Emergency parachute, hook knife

Equipment care

Aerodynamics

Drift: Head or tail wind, crabbing, corrections in turns, penetration

Stall: Description, in wind and lift gradients, dangers, recognition, avoidance and recovery

Driving forces: On the ground: by running, in the air: weight (gravity)

Lift: Axes, difference in pressure from aerofoil, airspeed, angle of attack

Drag: Increasing with airspeed and angle of attack

Meteorology

Wind: Meteorological wind, at take-off, in landing and along the flight path, indicators,

gradient

Local conditions: Terrain effects, valley, Venturi effect, obstructions, corners, rotors

Turbulence, gusts

- Mechanical: Wind speed gradient, wake of glider or obstacle, lee, rotor

- Shear: Mountain shape, gradient, inversion layer, catabatic flow

- Thermal: Mixing of air zones, gradient, combination with wind

Rules

Local and site(s)

Right of way rules: Crossing, slope, thermals, aircraft categories priorities

National Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association

Safety

Flight planning: Process, information, observation, evaluation, decision, execution

Flying exercises: Description, aim, procedures, execution, errors and dangers

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EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

At least 4 practice days

At least 10 flights

ATTITUDE REQUIREMENTS

The instructor shall be convinced that the student is able to take care of his own and

others safety, while altitude gliding within the recommendations given.

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STAGE 3 ACTIVE FLYING (GREEN)

Active flying is maintaining the normal flying mode in turbulent air. It includes keeping the

angle of attack within the limits, managing pitch and roll movements, preventing and

recovering from collapses, tucks and stalls, and quick descent techniques.

INSTRUCTIONAL AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS

Objective

This stage introduces the student to the effects of turbulence on glider behaviour and to the

appropriate recovery techniques. Dealing with turbulence precedes the next stages because

lifting air is often accompanied by turbulence nearby. Ground handling introduced in the previous

stage needs endless training at this stage and in all the next ones.

Turbulence causes shifts along and rotations around the three axes of the glider. The student

must know and distinguish glider pitch, roll and yaw movements due to turbulence, glider selfrecovery

and control inputs. He learns the active and passive ways to prevent collapses, the

recovering techniques and is informed about the glider certification tests.

At this stage, the student simulates pitch and roll movements, gets used to them and learns to

dampen them efficiently. He learns to collapse the wing tips, perform big ears, use the speed

system and control the glider by weight shift. If there is enough height, mild asymmetric collapses

can be performed (slightly bigger than big ears folding), followed by different recovery techniques.

A thorough knowledge of emergency procedures is gained. He becomes then able to recognize

turbulence induced collapses or dives, to execute prompt and correct recovery, and to use an

emergency parachute.

Proper environment

As calm conditions as possible, good spacing from other traffic, maximum height over the terrain

and close enough to the landing place. If available, the exercises should be performed over water

with beginners gliders. The exercises can also be made with an instructor under a tandem wing.

Warning

It is warned against too fast progression, overconfidence, inattention, ignorance, risk taking,

misjudgments and lack of skills. Poor technique or distractions leading to the loss of sail control

when launching can result in the sail overshooting and collapsing. Real life effects of turbulence

on gliders are much stronger than simulated in calm conditions, but the recovery principles are

the same. From now on, the student may fly on his own, but under supervision of an instructor.

He may experience the intermediate or Icarus syndrome, which means believing he now knows

and masters everything, and that neither he nor the equipment have limitations Accidents can

happen already in ground handling, and there is no such thing as a complete pilot as even

experienced pilots keep learning during their whole career.

When all rating requirements have been met

The student can fly freely within safe limitations, and as long as a higher stage is not required by

regulation. He has the responsibility to seek further instruction when necessary. It is

recommended in the beginning to use the rules above as guidance for safe flying.

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Before progressing to the next stage

The student shall have a variety of experiences from different sites and conditions. The flying

process shall be automated, so that reactions are fast and correct in the different

situations/exercises he has to master. He is aware of his physical and emotional state and takes

it in consideration when deciding to fly or not.

SKILL REQUIREMENTS

Take-off: Stop-line awareness and decision before accelerating for take-off

Speed control: Minimum sink speed, best glide angle including with lift/sink or wind

Turns: Ordinary speed and at minimum sink, coordinated, no sign of stall

Pitch and roll control: Simulation and dampening swings (stabilizing the glider), speed bar

Big ears: Collapsing wingtips, holding them, recovering them; big ears and weight shift

turns; big ears plus speed system; other descending techniques

Asymmetric collapse: Like a one side big ear or slightly bigger if possible inducing,

holding, recovery

Precision approach and landing: Safe and inside an area decided by the instructor, figure

8 and standard aircraft patterns

Tandem with instructor (gentle manoeuvres not needing a lake): Asymmetric collapse,

spiral dive (optional)

Emergency parachute deployment: Simulation (optional)

KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

Pilot

Psychological factors: Mental strength factors, factors interacting with stress (motivation,

emotions, concentration, personality), actions to lower stress, stress and self-confidence

measurement

Learning process: Description, objectives, individual progress, safety

Judgement: Insight, evaluations, decisions, actions, being ahead of the game, awareness

and tracking of other gliders

Aircraft

Removing debris from inside canopy

Awareness of trim checking

Cleaning canopy and harness

Aerodynamics

Pitch and roll movements: Creation by outside influence (glider reaction), glider stability,

control inputs

Big ears: Way to descend and increase glider stability by increased wing loading and

decreased aspect ratio, dangers

Collapse: Creation by outside influence (glider reaction), glider stability, control inputs

Spin: At take-off, turning, spin recovery, wind gradient, in landing

Spiral, skid and slip

Stall: In turbulence, unexpected lift, turns, gradient, downwind, dangers

Load: Weight, G-force, in turns, pull-outs, wind and lift gradients, gusts and turbulence

Emergency parachute: Aerodynamic brake, pulling in glider canopy

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Meteorology

Turbulence, gusts

- Mechanical: Behind or lee of obstructions, trees, buildings, hills, wind gradient

- Wind shifts and shears: Description, dangers

- Thermal: Tends to build as the day progresses until late afternoon

Deteriorating weather as a source of turbulence: Fronts, cumulonimbus, high winds,

gusts, strong lift

Breeze: Difference from wind, creation, sea, mountain, valley, strength, effects

Rules

Third part liability insurance, when available

School and training

Airspace: Local airspace limitations

Critical situations

Preparation: Causes, recognition, avoidance, corrections, training (simulation)

Poor take-off: Sight downward, poor wing control, overly aggressive or weak acceleration,

wing shooting forward, turn back into hill, getting into harness too soon

Knowing how to take and release wraps (shortening brake lines) when needed

Stall: In turbulence, unexpected lift, turns, gradient, downwind, dangers

Unusual attitudes: Turbulence, pitch ups and downs, collapse recovery

Poor approach and landing: Unstructured, no clear plan, over landing field, low turns, slow

flight close to terrain

First aid

In accordance with appropriate authoritys recommendations

EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

Basic elements of SIV course suggested

Emergency parachute opening clinic recommended

At least 3 successful flights with the above-mentioned exercises: pitch and roll control, big

ears, asymmetric collapse

ATTITUDE REQUIREMENTS

The instructor shall be convinced that the student is able to take care of his own and

others safety within applicable rules and regulations, recommendations and code of good

practice, while operating alone.

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STAGE 4 SOARING (BLUE)

Soaring is using updraughts to extend the flight duration, be it flying on a ridge facing

wind or in thermals, or even in wave.

INSTRUCTIONAL AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS

Objective

This stage is to make sure the pilot can safely fly any type of soaring within safe limitations, also

under pressure as in traffic, demonstrations and local/friendly competitions.

Soaring has several levels, from easy ridge or thermal conditions and mild manoeuvres with large

margins, to demanding conditions with smaller margins. It requires fast and accurate evaluations

of conditions and situation, combined with fast and precise manoeuvring. A pilot plans carefully

and is always well ahead of the situation, so that in critical cases he performs the right reaction

without delay.

At this stage, the student gets more airtime and the flying can become self-controlled, but there is

less room for mistakes and errors. His experience is still low, any setback needs to be avoided. A

thoroughly planned progression is therefore important. Exercises shall be simple in the beginning,

with large safety margins. The launch and lower speed range control must be mastered, like

coordinated turns with a minimum height loss, while calculating drift, keeping an eye on traffic and

respecting traffic rules. The student knows the performance curves, flying speeds (speed polar),

design limitations and load factors of his glider. Later on, when there is enough height, he can

study pitch and roll limits.

Proper environment

It is recommended in the beginning to use the rules for students above as guidance for safe

flying: strong wind, turbulence, cliff or crosswind launches, top or into the hill landings shall be

avoided, and an instructor should be present, in communication with the student.

Warning

It is warned against radical conditions, because of the enormous forces involved. The student will

operate with smaller margins. Strong wind and turbulence may easily lead him to the lee side, or

let him drift over dangerous/unknown terrain.

When a pilot masters the art, it seems quite simple and in a sense it is. However, this should not

mislead anyone into believing that it is easily mastered. Lack of knowledge, misjudgment, poor

manoeuvring, ignorance or risk taking may easily result in an accident. The student shall still

avoid flying alone.

When all rating requirements have been met

Students will become pilots once this stage is completed. Pilots must have a licence for this stage

in order to soar (ridge and thermal) in demonstrations, local/friendly competitions or other

situations where this stage is required. Students are not allowed to practice soaring unless under

instructor control.

Before progressing to the next stage

The pilot must be able, with a great deal of accuracy, to assess himself and the equipment

related to the conditions, and assess the conditions before deciding to launch, especially

regarding wind and gusts. He shall have a variety of experiences from different sites and

conditions, but has the responsibility to seek further instruction when necessary. The process of

flying shall be automated, so that reactions are fast and correct in the different

situations/exercises he has to master.

Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 17

SafePro Para 2017

SKILL REQUIREMENTS

Take-off in wind: Types, with assistance, instructions, reverse position

Manoeuvring in lift band: Figure 8 pattern, drift and gradient corrections, no sign of stall,

manoeuvring according to terrain and traffic, keeping a good lookout

Ridge soaring: Best lift zone, best speed along the ridge, managing priorities, crossing

gaps and low areas, maintaining easy reach of landing options

360 turns: From minimum sink to steep bank, correcting drift

Thermal soaring: Finding and following thermal cores, choosing exit direction

Speed range: Exploring medium speeds

Landing in wind: Positioning according to wind strength, traffic control, ground handling

KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

Pilot

Psychological factors: Confidence/overconfidence, group or self-pressure, approval, selfdiscipline,

giving up (flight, remaining in a drifting thermal...)

Aircraft

Clothes: For endurance, altitude and cold

Harness selection and tuning: Types, rating, experience, comfort, organization, water,

radio, all wires inside harness, emergency parachute handle access

Glider selection: Size, handling, experience, type of flying, ambitions, for maximum

performance in the prevailing conditions

Instruments: Variometers, altimeters, settings

Performance: Minimum sink, maximum glide and speed, penetration, manoeuvrability

Maintenance: Daily and periodical inspections and care, trim control and repairs,

inspection after repairs

Aerodynamics

Stability: Positive pitch, reflex, wing twisting, sail distribution versus centre of gravity

G-loads: Speed in turbulence, aerobatics, structural failures, loss of control

Airworthiness: Design and certification standards, purpose and need, load, weight, speed

and manoeuvring range, stability, stall characteristics, rating

Design factors: Aerofoils, area, aspect ratio, arch, openings, effects

Parasitic and induced drag: Wing tip vortices, ground effect

Meteorology

Ridge lift

- Factors: Shape and gradient of slope, wind direction and velocity

- Components: Horizontal, vertical, gradient, acceleration

- Zones: Strongest lift, strongest headwind, turbulence, lee, rotors

Thermals

- Factors: Uneven heating, instability, lapse rates, contrasts, light to medium winds

- Types: Radius, strength, dry thermals, dangers

- Signs: Temperature drop with altitude, lulls and gusts, clouds

Weather: Heat and pressure differences, global circulation, Coriolis effect

- Air masses, fronts: Stability/instability, signs, convergence

- Measuring: Wind, pressure, humidity and stability

- Clouds: Types, associated weather and conditions

- Reports: Actuals (METAR), warnings (TAF), area (IGA), maps, interpretation

Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 18

SafePro Para 2017

Rules

Ridge and thermal soaring rules (priorities)

VFR rules: Minimum visibility and distances from clouds

Government or other official authorities

Critical situations

Unfamiliar situations: With site, equipment, manoeuvres or tasks, priorities, conditions

Poor Judgement: Overestimating own ability, underestimating site, conditions, equipment

or task

Ground handling in high wind: Dragged by wind, reactions

Critical manoeuvres: Flying close to terrain and obstructions, slow flight, 360 turns,

returning to lift band, top landing, collapse/spin recovery

Emergency procedures: Unexpected wind or turbulence, collapses, hillside/tree/water

landing, rough terrain, obstructions, power lines

Reduced visibility: Flying close to clouds, reactions

Accidents: Assistance and reports

First aid

Regular updates

EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

SIV course recommended

At least 25 successful flights from 3 different sites

At least 15 flying hours, including in thermal soaring

ATTITUDE REQUIREMENTS

The pilot shall be considered to be able to take care of his own and others' safety while

flying at this stage, also during displays, demonstrations, local/friendly competitions and

wherever this stage in required.

Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 19

SafePro Para 2017

STAGE 4A LANDING ACCURACY

This additional rating shows that the pilot masters the specific skills needed to practice

landing accuracy, including in competitions. This rating can be qualifying to enter CIVL

first category competitions.

SKILL REQUIREMENTS

Taking off with less than ideal conditions, both foot and tow launching

Ease to turn both directions

Controlling altitude and position through safe manoeuvring

Managing:

- Frontal or asymmetric collapse

- Spiral dive

- Autorotation, stall

Low speed landing

KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

Analysis: Of competition rules, weather sounding, task briefing

Strategies, techniques and dangers flying upwind, crosswind and downwind

Use of the full extent of the wings polar curve

Equipment follow-up: Lines' length, canopy control, emergency parachute folding

EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

Experience with the EN category used

ATTITUDE REQUIREMENTS

Managing stress, emotions, concentration

Assessing conditions before the flight

Construction of flight plan and flight tactics

Remaining safe when target is not chosen with proper safety margins

Criticism about own awareness under competitive pressure (assessing group or own

decisions with regard to threats)

Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 20

SafePro Para 2017

STAGE 5 SENIOR PILOT (BROWN)

The senior pilot is fully autonomous and shows good flying experience. He is able to take

care of his own and others safety while flying. He is able to operate his paraglider in a

wide range of terrains and conditions.

INSTRUCTIONAL AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS

Objective

This stage confirms that the pilot has an in depth experience in at least one practice of

paragliding. He is able to fly safely in that discipline, also under pressure as in demonstrations,

displays and national/CIVL second category competitions. He is also ready to share his

experience, for instance by becoming instructor.

Proper environment

This stage has nearly unlimited possibilities, from short and easy flights to really demanding

flights, where if conditions permit, the pilots ability and his determination will set the limits. Here is

the pilots ability put to the ultimate test.

Flying at this level requires to plan, administer and perform each flight within safe limitations. The

pilot has a thorough knowledge of aerodynamics, meteorology, traffic and airspace rules. In

accordance with the planned flight, existing and possible conditions, he chooses correct

equipment, organizes the logistics (retrieve, rescue boat, communication and procedures to use

in an emergency situation). He can judge the terrain and conditions to avoid causing injuries to

himself or others.

Warning

It is warned against flying over areas with no possibilities for emergency landings and over water

without rescue boat. The pilot always makes sure that someone knows where he intends to fly,

and that a search is activated if necessary.

Pilots must have a licence on this stage in order to fly in exhibitions, national/CIVL second

category competitions or wherever else this stage is required. Students are not allowed to fly at that

level unless in a seminar with instructors.

SKILL REQUIREMENTS

Special launches

- Crosswind: Maximum 45, weak side component

- Cliff launch: In moderate to strong wind, assistance

- Towing (if possible): Winch

Adapting cruising speed to conditions

Speed range: Exploring higher speeds in smooth air, use of the full polar curve extent

Turbulence, gusts: Glider control

Rear risers handling

Out landings: Selection of the landing field, control of speed and glide angle, precision

approach to unknown landing area

Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 21

SafePro Para 2017

KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

Pilot

Adequate physical fitness

Awareness: Analysing, staying ahead, giving up, keeping energy for landing

Adaptation to changing conditions and terrain

Aircraft

Maintenance: Recognition of cloth/lines aging, line tuning, replacing a damaged line

Aerodynamics

Speed polar curves: Air and ground speed, minimum sink, best glide angle, influence of

lift/sink, of head/tail wind, turns, wing loading, air density

Meteorology

Frontal lift: Cold front description, thunderstorms

- Signs: Towering clouds, squall lines, wind shift, temperature fall

- Dangers: Cumulonimbus, high winds, gusts, strong lift, turbulence, escaping

Lift lines

- Cloud streets, blue streets

- Convergence

Wave

- Signs: Terrain, wind direction and velocity, stability, lenticular clouds

- Dangers: Rotors, low penetration, strong lift, high altitudes, hypoxia, cold

Planning

Procedures: Signals, retrieval, warning, search after missing pilots

Rules

Controlled airspace: Air corridors, terminal areas, control zones and airports, airways, Air

Traffic Control, VFR/IFR traffic patterns, rules of operations

Uncontrolled airspace: AFI, other airfields, dangers, restrictions, prohibited areas,

information zones and services, VFR/IFR traffic patterns, rules of operations

Military traffic: Training areas, photographing from the air

Other airspace: Restricted, dangerous and prohibited areas

Information sources: ICAO maps, publications, AIC, AIP, manuals, NOTAMs, information

service, local airports and clubs, schools

First aid

Regular updates

EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

SIV course strongly recommended, and as a minimum: big angle pitch and pitch control,

collapse control, autorotation and exit, stall, tail sliding and exit

At least 100 flights or 50 flying hours, on 5 different sites

ATTITUDE REQUIREMENTS

The pilot is able to assess the risk in all situations, taking into account not only the

probability of incident, but also the consequences for him and others (remote position,

poor access, medical coverage...) and eliminates unnecessary risk. See here.

http://www.fai.org/civl-our-sport/safety/40754-assessment

Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 22

SafePro Para 2017

STAGE 5B CROSS-COUNTRY

This additional rating shows that the pilot masters the specific skills needed to fly crosscountry

(using updraughts to fly away from the local flying site).

SKILL REQUIREMENTS

Bringing the required equipment: GPS, first aid/survival equipment, oxygen, live tracker

Choosing the best launch with regard to the weather analysis

Taking off with less than ideal conditions, both foot and tow launching, managing traffic

Ease to turn both directions in a thermal, alone or in traffic

Sustaining flight in very weak conditions while maintaining a good safety margin (close to

terrain, with limited landing fields, in glider traffic, etc.)

Thermalling in strong wind while maintaining safety with drift and elusive lift

Using the MacCready theory, choosing thermal exit time and speed to fly

Thermalling in gaggles: This practice should be acquired gradually, with first one, then

more pilots at the learners level

Managing:

- Accelerated asymmetric collapse

- Amplified pitch with dampening, with front collapse, amplified roll

- Autorotation, stall

Choosing the best landing field while in flight and setting up a precision approach for a short

field with possible barriers

Landing with other gliders at the same time

KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

Analysis: Of competition rules, weather sounding

Using maps: Airspace, desert areas, hazards, landing areas, alternative routes

Strategies, techniques and dangers flying upwind, crosswind and downwind

Knowing when to remain with a group and when to strike out on ones own

Efficient use of radio with a team

Equipment follow-up: Lines' length, canopy control, emergency parachute folding

EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

Experience with the EN category used

At least 5 cross-country flights (flying only along the same ridge does not qualify)

ATTITUDE REQUIREMENTS

Managing stress, emotions, concentration

Assessing conditions before the flight

Construction of flight plan and flight tactics

Understanding when to change gears and flying style according to the days progress and

changing conditions, as well as on different days

Crossing cloud streets, blue holes or other lift compromising areas

Detouring around unlandable areas

Remaining safe when the course line is not chosen with proper safety margins

Stopping or detouring a flight when thunderstorms are along the course line

Criticism about own awareness under competitive pressure (assessing group or own

decisions with regard to threats)

Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 23

SafePro Para 2017

STAGE 5C RACING

This additional rating shows that the pilot masters the specific skills needed to fly racing

competitions with a large number of pilots in challenging and directed tasks. This rating

can be qualifying to enter CIVL first category competitions.

SKILL REQUIREMENTS

Taking off with less than ideal conditions, both foot and tow launching, managing dense

traffic

Ease to turn both directions in a thermal, alone or in traffic

Sustaining flight in very weak conditions while maintaining a good safety margin (close to

terrain, with limited landing fields, in glider traffic, etc.)

Thermalling in strong wind while maintaining safety with drift and elusive lift

Using the MacCready theory, choosing thermal exit time and speed to fly

Thermalling in gaggles of at least ten pilots in close proximity. This practice should be

acquired gradually, with first one, then more pilots at the learners level

Managing:

- Accelerated asymmetric collapse

- Amplified pitch with dampening, with front collapse, amplified roll

- Autorotation, stall

Choosing the best landing field while in flight and setting up a precision approach for a short

field with possible barriers

Launching and landing with multiple gliders at the same time

KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

Analysis: Of competition rules, weather sounding, task briefing

Strategies, techniques and dangers flying upwind, crosswind and downwind

Achieving turnpoints without landing at them (strategies related to drift)

Knowing when to remain with the gaggle and when to strike out on ones own

Final glide matters: Safe altitudes and flying speeds with turbulence, sink and possibly

limited landing options

Efficient use of radio with the team

Equipment follow-up: Lines' length, canopy control, emergency parachute folding

EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

Experience with all EN categories including 2 liners

Making at least 3 goals in national/CIVL second category racing tasks

ATTITUDE REQUIREMENTS

Managing stress, emotions, concentration

Assessing conditions before the flight

Construction of flight plan and flight tactics

Understanding when to change gears and flying style according to the days

progress and changing conditions, as well as on different days

Remaining safe when turnpoints are not chosen with proper safety margins

Stop or detour of a flight when thunderstorms are along the course line

Criticism about own awareness under competitive pressure (assessing group or

own decisions with regard to threats)

Recommended Safety Proficiency Standards for Paragliding 24

SafePro Para 2017

STAGE 5D AEROBATICS

This additional rating shows that the pilot masters the specific skills needed to fly

aerobatics, including in competitions. This rating can be qualifying to enter CIVL first

category competitions.

SKILL REQUIREMENTS

Taking off with less than ideal conditions, both foot and tow launching

Ease to turn both directions

Controlling drift (from take-off to the box and during evolution in the box

Managing:

- Safety margin to the public and terrain

- Spiral dive with brake exit, deep spiral with dynamic exit in less than 90

- Full stall, tail slide and symmetric recovery

- Spin, helico, safe recovery (using stall/full stall)

- Wingovers

- SAT

Landing with other gliders at the same time

KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

Analysis: Of competition rules, weather sounding

Attending task briefings and following instructions

Not trying new manoeuvres in a task

Equipment follow-up: Lines' length, canopy control, emergency parachute folding

EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

SIV course completed

Experience with the EN category used

At least 20 flights featuring aerobatic maoeuvres with the competition wing before the

event (with video evidence)

Several flights under pressure (demonstration, local competition, evolution over ground) to

confirm experience and self-control

ATTITUDE REQUIREMENTS

Managing stress, emotions, concentration, over-motivation

Assessing conditions before the flight, taking appropriate decisions

Managing the risk, doing only mastered maoeuvres

Remaining safe when conditions do not ensure proper safety margins

Respecting judges decisions before the claim time

Criticism about own awareness under pressure (assessing group or own decisions with

regard to threats)




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